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Tag: Giant virus

Lurking beneath the ice

Scientists found dead tardigrades beneath the Antarctica based on their report published of recent.[1] It was a surprising discovery since tardigrades have acquired the mark as the tiny infinities. They are so resistant to extreme conditions that they are thought of as some sort of “immortals“. Nonetheless, scientists found remains of tardigrades, together with crustaceans in deep, frozen Antarctic lake.[1]

 

 

Antarctic Realm – The Cold Realm

 

Antarctic realm
The Antarctic biogeographic realm – the smallest of all realms.

 

The Antarctic is a region located in the southern-most tip of the Earth. The biogeographic realm that includes the Antarctic is called the Antarctic realm. A biogeographic realm refers to an area of land where similar organisms thrived and then evolved through periods of time in relative isolation.[2] It rouses extensive research with the paramount objective of understanding the extent of biodiversity, especially the distributional patterns of residing organisms and the biological evolutionary history incurred.

 

 

The Antarctic biogeographic realm is the smallest of all realms. It spans a total area of about 0.12 million square miles. Its components include the land area, the Antarctic tectonic plate, the ice in the waters, and the ocean itself. [2]  Because of the cold temperature, few floral species are able to persist and thrive. At present, around 250 lichens, 100 mosses, 25-30 livertworts, 700 algal species, and two flowering plant species (i.e. Antarctic hair grass and Antarctic pearlwort) inhabit the region. As for fauna, animal species include the penguinsseals, and whales.[2]

 

 

An Icy Surprise

 

tardigrade
Tardigrades . [Credit: Willow Gabriel, Goldstein Lab – https://www.flickr.com/photos/waterbears/1614095719/]

The discovery of the remains of tardigrades was unexpected, according to David Harnwood, a micropaleontologist. Late last year, Harnwood and his research team drilled a hole in the subglacial Lake Mercer. This frozen lake had been undisturbed for millennia.  Thus, their research project SALSA (Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access) was the first to conduct direct sampling. They were absolutely surprised to find these water bears –frozen and dead.

 

Astounded, the animal ecologist, Byron Adams, conjectured that these tardigrades might have come from the Transantarctic Mountains, and then carried down to Lake Mercer. [1] Further, he said, “What was sort of stunning about the stuff from Lake Mercer is it’s not super, super-old. They’ve not been dead that long.”

 

 

Chilly Giants

mollivirus
“Mollivirus sibericum” found in Siberian permafrost.
[Credit: © IGS CNRS/AMU]

In September 2015, Jean-Michel Claverie and others reported two giant viruses (i.e. ”Pithovirus sibericum” and ”Mollivirus sibericum”) that they revived from a 30,000-year-old permafrost in Siberia.[3,5] Once revived, the viruses quickly became infectious to their natural hosts, the amoebae. [5] Luckily, these chilly giants do not prefer humans as hosts. Nonetheless, the melting of these frozen habitats could implicate danger to the public health when pathogens that can infect humans escape the icy trap.

 

 

A frozen Pandora’s Box

The frozen regions of the Earth hold so many astonishing surprises waiting to be “thawed”. In August 2016, a 12-year old boy from the Yamalo-Nenets region of Siberia died from anthrax. Reports included a few number of locals and thousands of grazing reindeer as well.[6] Prior to the anthrax outbreak, a summer heatwave caused the melting of the permafrost in the Yamal Peninsula in the Arctic Circle. The thawing of the frozen soil unleashed anthrax bacteria presumed to have come from the carcass of their reindeer host that died over 75 years ago. Their release apparently reached the nearby soil, water, the food supply, and eventually their new hosts.[5] The anthrax bacteria survived because they form spores that can protect them during their dormancy.

 

 

 

A Hotter Earth

Global warming supposedly increases the average temperature of the Earth’s surface enough to cause climate change. Accordingly, the global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the last century. The temperature rise brings threat as it could lead to environmental changes that could cause adverse effects of massive magnitude. One of which is the destruction of habitats due to the subsequent rise of water level from the melting of ice. Deadly pathogens could rise again from their cold slumber and plausibly cause another major mass extinction in no time. So, while we try to explore the deeper mysteries lurking beneath the ice, we should also make sure that we remain a step ahead. Claverie[5] excellently put it:

The possibility that we could catch a virus from a long-extinct Neanderthal suggests that the idea that a virus could be ‘eradicated’ from the planet is wrong, and gives us a false sense of security. This is why stocks of vaccine should be kept, just in case.

 

 

— written by Maria Victoria Gonzaga

 

 

References:

 

1  Berman, R. (2019, January 18). Dead – yes, dead – tardigrade found beneath Antarctica. Retrieved from [link]

2  Pariona, A. (2018, May 18). What Are The Eight Biogeographic Realms? Retrieved from [link]

3 CNRS. (2015, September 9). New giant virus discovered in Siberia’s permafrost. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from [link]

4  ‌ Wikipedia Contributors. (2018, November 10). Antarctic realm. Retrieved from [link]

5  Fox-Skelly, J. (2017, January 1). There are diseases hidden in ice, and they are waking up. Retrieved from [link]

6  Russia anthrax outbreak affects dozens in north Siberia. (2016, August 2). BBC News. Retrieved from [link]

7  Biology-Online Editors. (2014, May 12). Biology Online. Retrieved from [link]