Biology Online is a Biology blog and dictionary site that provides up to date articles on the latest developments in biological science. The Biology Online Dictionary is a completely free and open dictionary with over 60,000 biology terms. It uses the wiki concept, so that anyone can make a contribution.
Tag: fasting

Fasting boosts human metabolism, has anti-aging effects

In the advent of 2019, we are inspired to set new goals, pursue life-long dreams, or simply make better choices. Perhaps, one of the most common reveries we wish to realize is to be able to adopt a healthier kind of lifestyle. With this in mind, some of us look for ways to feel dutifully healthier, such as by managing our weight. So, many would turn to fad diets and caloric restrictions that promise to help. One of them is intermittent fasting. Based on studies, intermittent fasting does not only help trim weight but it seems to offer further health benefits as well.

 

 

 

Intermittent fasting – overview

 

intermittent fasting
Scientists found that fasting boosted human metabolism. This could mean that fasting may slow aging in humans. [Image credit: Zeyus Media]

 

 

In May 2018, I wrote the article: Intermittent Fasting – benefits and caution. There, I tackled briefly about intermittent fasting, its benefits, and potential risk. In essence, intermittent fasting is a cyclic pattern of a period of fasting and a subsequent period of non-fasting. The most common forms are: (1) whole-day fasting and (2) time-restricted eating. Whole-day fasting entails one-full day of “no eating”, done twice a week (thus, referred to as “5:2 plan“). In time-restricted eating, there is an interval of fasting and non-fasting on a daily basis. It could be half a day of fasting, and then the remaining half as the non-fasting period.  With intermittent fasting, it’s not so much about “what to eat…” or “how much…” Rather, it’s more about a question of when.

 

 

 

Intermittent fasting became popular because it does not only help curb weight but it also implicates other health benefits. It apparently slows aging and boosts the immune defense.[1] However, as I pointed out in that article, caution should still be taken. Intermittent fasting is not for everyone, especially those who are immunocompromised and underweight.[2]

 

 

 

Rejuvenating effects of fasting

Previously, I mentioned that studies confirming the health benefits of fasting were done on non-human subjects (e.g. rodent models). Without much scientific proofs of efficacy on humans, what would, therefore, be definite is doubt.  However, on January 29 of this year, a team of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and Kyoto University reported rejuvenating effects of fasting on human subjects. They published their findings in Scientific Reports.[3] Accordingly, they analyzed the blood samples from four fasting individuals. They also monitored the levels of metabolites involved in growth and energy metabolism. What they found was quite interesting and promising.

 

 

 

Dr. Takayuki Teruya, one of the researchers of the team, said that their results implicated the rejuvenating effects of fasting. They found that many metabolites increased significantly, about 1.5- to 60-fold, in just 58 hours of fasting. In their previous study, they identified some of these metabolites (e.g. leucine, isoleucine, and ophthalmic acid), that typically deplete with age. According to Dr. Teruya, they found that the amount of these metabolites increased again in individuals who fasted. Also, they conjectured that fasting could possibly promote muscle maintenance and antioxidant activity based on the metabolites they found. Hence, fasting may probably promote longevity as well. Dr. Teruya further said that this was not yet known until now since most studies that have said so used animal models.[4]

 

 

 

Fasting increased metabolism

During fasting, the body turns to alternate energy stores when carbohydrates are not available. Thus, the less-common metabolites from alternative metabolic pathways superseded the typical metabolites from carbohydrate metabolism. They identified butyrates, carnitines, and branched-chain amino acids as some of the metabolites that accumulated during fasting. [4] Apart from this, the researchers also found an increase in Citric acid cycle intermediates. This means that aside from prompting alternate metabolic pathways, fasting has also augmented the common metabolic activities. The metabolism of purine and pyrimidine seemed also heightened, indicating an increase in gene expression and protein synthesis. Because of this, the researchers also saw a boost in antioxidants (e.g. ergothioneine and carnosine) that protect cells from the free radicals produced by metabolism. The researchers assume to be the first to provide evidence of antioxidants as a fasting marker. [4]

 

 

 

This new-found proof infers that fasting seems to have some anti-aging effects, this time, on human subjects. Their next step is to see if they could duplicate the results in a larger-scale study. For now, let us remain cautious, look for indubitable substantiation, and weigh in the benefits and risks of all available options.

 

 

 

— written by Maria Victoria Gonzaga

 

 

References:

 

1  Cohut, M. (2018). Intermittent fasting may have ‘profound health benefits’. Retrieved from [Link]

2  Longo, V. D., & Mattson, M. P. (2014). Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications. Cell Metabolism, 19 (2), 181–192. [Link]

3 Teruya, T., Chaleckis, R., Takada, J., Yanagida, M. & Kondoh, H. (2019). Diverse metabolic reactions activated during 58-hr fasting are revealed by non-targeted metabolomic analysis of human blood. ”Scientific Reports, 9”(1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-36674-9.

4  ‌ Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University. (2019, January 31). Fasting ramps up human metabolism, study shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from [Link]