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Difference between revisions of "Temperament"

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temperament
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'''Definition'''
  
1. [[Internal]] [[constitution]]; [[state]] with [[respect]] to the [[relative]] [[proportion]] of different qualities, or constituent [[parts]]. ''The common [[law]] . . . Has reduced the [[kingdom]] to its [[just]] state and temperament.'' (Sir M. Hale)
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''noun, plural: temperaments ''
  
2. Due [[mixture]] of qualities; a [[condition]] brought about by mutual compromises or concessions. ''However, I forejudge not any probable expedient, any temperament that can be found in things of this [[nature]], so disputable on their side.'' ([[milton]])
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(1) [[Internal]] [[constitution]]; [[state]] with [[respect]] to the [[relative]] [[proportion]] of different qualities, or constituent [[parts]].
  
3. The act of [[tempering]] or modifying; [[adjustment]], as of clashing [[rules]], [[interests]], [[passions]], or the like; also, the [[means]] by which such adjustment is effected. ''Wholesome temperaments of the rashness of popular assemblies.'' (Sir J. Mackintosh)
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(2) [[Condition]] with [[regard]] to [[heat]] or [[cold]]; [[temperature]].  
  
4. [[Condition]] with [[regard]] to [[heat]] or [[cold]]; [[temperature]]. ''Bodies are denominated ''hot'' and ''cold'' in [[proportion]] to the [[present]] temperament of that part of our [[body]] to which they are applied.'' ([[locke]])
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(3) The [[tendency]] to become irritable or angry.
  
5. A system of compromises in the tuning of [[organs]], pianofortes, and the like, whereby the [[tones]] generated with the [[vibrations]] of a [[ground]] tone are mutually modified and in part canceled, until their [[number]] reduced to the [[actual]] [[practicable]] [[scale]] of twelve tones to the octave. This scale, although in so [[far]] [[artificial]], is yet closely [[suggestive]] of its [[origin]] in [[nature]], and this system of tuning, although not mathematically true, yet satisfies the [[ear]], while it has the convenience that the same twelve [[fixed]] tones [[answer]] for every [[key]] or scale, C# becoming [[identical]] with D<flat/, and so on.
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(4) [[Disposition]] of an [[individual]].
  
6. (Science: physiology) The [[peculiar]] [[physical]] and [[mental]] [[character]] of an [[individual]], in olden [[times]] erroneously supposed to be due to individual [[variation]] in the [[relations]] and [[proportions]] of the constituent [[parts]] of the [[body]], especially of the [[fluids]], as the [[bile]], [[blood]], [[lymph]], etc. Hence the [[phrases]], [[bilious]] or [[choleric]] temperament, [[sanguine]] temperament, etc, implying a [[predominance]] of one of these fluids and a corresponding [[influence]] on the temperament. [[Equal]] temperament, that in which the variations are thrown into the keys least used.
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(5) (psychology)The distinctive mode of thinking, behaving, or reacting of an [[individual]] to its [[surroundings]].
  
Origin: L. Temperamentum a mixing in due proportion, proper measure, temperament: cf. F. Temperament. See Temper.
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''Supplement''
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It was previously thought that the temperaments were due caused by the imbalance and predominance in proportions of one of the four basic humors: black [[bile]], yellow [[bile]], [[phlegm]], and [[blood]].
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More recently, with the emphasis on the biological basis of personality, the relationship between temperament and character has been examined with renewed interest.
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''Word origin:'' temperament < from Latin ''temperamentum'' "proper mixture," from temperare "to mix".
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''Related terms:'' [[temperament theory]].

Revision as of 10:26, 26 August 2008

Definition

noun, plural: temperaments

(1) Internal constitution; state with respect to the relative proportion of different qualities, or constituent parts.

(2) Condition with regard to heat or cold; temperature.

(3) The tendency to become irritable or angry.

(4) Disposition of an individual.

(5) (psychology)The distinctive mode of thinking, behaving, or reacting of an individual to its surroundings.


Supplement

It was previously thought that the temperaments were due caused by the imbalance and predominance in proportions of one of the four basic humors: black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood.

More recently, with the emphasis on the biological basis of personality, the relationship between temperament and character has been examined with renewed interest.


Word origin: temperament < from Latin temperamentum "proper mixture," from temperare "to mix".

Related terms: temperament theory.