Difference between revisions of "Ribosomes"

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[[Ribosomes]] are responsible for assembling the [[proteins]] of the [[cell]]. Ribosomal [[subunits]] are synthesized by the [[nucleolus]]. Depending on the [[protein]] [[production]] level of a [[particular]] [[cell]], [[ribosomes]] may [[number]] in the millions. They are tiny [[round]] [[particles]].
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=== Definition ===
 
[[ribosomes]] are typically composed of two subunits: a [[large]] [[subunit]] and a [[small]] [[subunit]]. These two [[units]] [[join]] together when the [[ribosome]] [[attaches]] to [[messenger rna]] to [[produce]] a [[protein]] in the [[cytoplasm]] (cyto-).
 
 
there are two [[places]] that [[ribosomes]] usually [[exist]] in the cell: suspended in the [[cytosol]] and [[bound]] to the [[endoplasmic reticulum]]. These [[ribosomes]] are called [[free]] [[ribosomes]] and [[bound]] [[ribosomes]] respectively. In both [[cases]], the [[ribosomes]] usually [[form]] [[aggregates]] called polysomes (poly-) (also known as polyribosomes).
 
 
[[free]] [[ribosomes]] usually [[make]] [[proteins]] that will [[function]] in the [[cytosol]] while [[bound]] [[ribosomes]] usually [[make]] [[proteins]] that are exported or [[included]] in the [[cells]] [[membranes]]. Interestingly enough, [[free]] [[ribosomes]] and [[bound]] [[ribosomes]] are interchangeable and the [[cell]] can [[change]] their [[numbers]] according to [[metabolic]] [[needs]].
 
  
[[ribosomes]] - [[protein]] CONSTRUCTION TEAMS
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'''noun'''
[[cells]] [[need]] to [[make]] [[proteins]]. Those [[proteins]] might be used as [[enzymes]] or as [[support]] for other [[cell]] [[functions]]. When you [[need]] to [[make]] [[proteins]], you [[look]] for [[ribosomes]]. [[Ribosomes]] are the [[protein]] builders or the [[protein]] synthesizers of the [[cell]]. They are like construction guys who take one [[amino acid]] at a [[time]] and [[build]] [[long]] [[protein]] [[chains]].
 
  
[[ribosomes]] could be in many [[places]] around the [[cell]]. You might find them [[floating]] in the [[cytoplasm]]. Those [[floating]] [[ribosomes]] [[make]] [[proteins]] that will be used [[inside]] of the [[cell]]. Other [[ribosomes]] are found on the [[endoplasmic reticulum]]. [[Endoplasmic reticulum]] with [[ribosomes]] attached is called [[rough]]. It [[looks]] bumpy under a [[microscope]]. Those attached [[ribosomes]] [[make]] [[proteins]] that will be used [[inside]] the [[cell]] and [[proteins]] made for [[export]] ([[outside]] the [[cell]]).
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''singular: ribosome''
  
A [[ribosome]] is not [[just]] one [[piece]]. There are two [[pieces]] or [[subunits]]. Scientists named them 60-S and 30-S. When the [[cell]] [[needs]] to [[make]] [[protein]], [[mrna]] is created in the [[nucleus]]. The [[mrna]] is then sent into the [[cell]] to the [[ribosomes]]. When it is [[time]] to [[make]] the [[protein]], the two [[subunits]] come together and combine with the [[mrna]]. The two [[pieces]] [[lock]] onto the [[mrna]] and [[start]] the [[protein synthesis]].
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Plural form of '''[[ribosome]]''', i.e. any of the small round particles in a cell made up of RNA and protein that are primarily involved in the assembly of proteins by translating messenger RNA (a process called translation)
  
The [[process]] of making [[proteins]] is quite [[simple]]. We [[just]] explained that [[mrna]] is made in the [[nucleus]] and sent into the [[cell]]. The [[mrna]] combines with the [[ribosome]] [[subunits]]. Another [[nucleic acid]] [[lives]] in the [[cell]] - [[trna]], which [[stands]] for [[transfer rna]], and it is bonded to [[amino acids]]. With the [[mrna]] offering [[instructions]], the [[ribosome]] connects to a [[trna]] and [[pulls]] off the [[amino acids]]. Slowly the [[ribosome]] [[makes]] a [[long]] [[amino acid]] [[chain]] that becomes a [[protein]].
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=== See: [[Ribosome]] for further information. ===

Latest revision as of 00:04, 18 August 2019

Definition

noun

singular: ribosome

Plural form of ribosome, i.e. any of the small round particles in a cell made up of RNA and protein that are primarily involved in the assembly of proteins by translating messenger RNA (a process called translation)


See: Ribosome for further information.