Vinculin gene is mapped on chromosome 10q22.1-q23 that contains 1066 amino acids with 117 kDa cytoskeletal proteins which consists of an acidic N-terminal domain and basic C-terminal domain divided by proline segment. It has a globular head domain that holds binding sites for talin and α-actinin whereas the tail region embraces binding site for F-actin,lipids and paxillin. Its gene occurs in single copy with no close relative to take over its functions when damage.
Vinculin regulates cell surface E-cadherin expression and plays a significant role in cell locomotion and morphology. It has a spliced variants metavenculin which also needed these proteins to heterodimerize and toil in a dependent manner. Studies shows that human and chicken vinculin protein exhibits around 95% gene sequence similarity.
Vinculin defects are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy type I disorder distinguished by ventricular dilation resulting in congestive heart failure. It is also significant on how virus causes pleiotropic effects of alteration.
Gene name: VCL
Protein name: Vinculin