Type I arginase
Type I arginase gene is mapped on chromosome 6q23.2 that contains 8 exons which tightly regulated by exogenous stimuli such as IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-21. Its production of urea takes away excess nitrogen from the body whereas ornithine generatespolyamines,glutamate and proline. It is also competes with iNOS, an enzyme that manage the production ofnitricoxide in IFN gamma.
Type I arginase is responsible to promote inflammation, fibrosis and wound healing by enhancing L-proline, Th2 cytokine and polyamine production. It is an essential suppressive mediator of alternatively activated macrophage which exhibits both as anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity during Th2-driven inflammatory response. Studies reveal that 90% of these enzymes found in the liver while 50% in brain, kidney and gastrointestinal tract.
Type I arginase is associated as critical mediators of immune down modulation in chronic schistosomiasis which is associated by the accumulation in large amount around granulomas since Arginase 1 regulates the synthesis of amino acid proline which is needed for collagen production involved in wound healing and fibrosis. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to argininemia, an autosomal recessive disorder distinguished by hyperammonemia. It is also linked in various human diseases such aspulmonary disease, infectious disease, vascular disease and cancers.
Gene name: ARG1
Protein name: Arginase-1