Toll-like receptor 3
Toll-like receptor 3 gene mapped on chromosome 4q35 with 904 amino acids spanning at about 4kb and 6kb transcripts that is activated by double stranded RNA, a form of genetic information carried by viruses like retrovirus and acts through the adapter TICAM-1 leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion, IRF3 nuclear translocation and inflammatory response to signal other cell to increaseantiviral defenses.
Toll-like receptor 3 is mostly abundant in pancreas and placenta that only expressed in dendritic cells but not in other leukocytes and describe means that encourages cross priming during viralinfections which leads to striking increase in cytotoxic T cell against cell associated antigens that is generally dependent on TLR3 expression by antigen presenting cell thus, signifies that these particular gene evolved to allow cross-priming of cytotoxic T cells against viruses yet do not directly infect dendritic cells.
Toll-like receptor 3 plays a significant role in atherosclerosis and shows effects on human vascular cells. It also associated in children with herpes simplex encephalitis due to mutation of P554S TLR3 gene in which stimulation of heterozygous dermal fibroblasts showed hypo-responsiveness in cell lines that increased viral replication however TLR3 is crucial for natural immunity to HSV-1 in the central nervous system which confers that neurotropic viruses contributes to the evolutionary maintenance of TLR3.
Gene name: TLR3
Protein name: Toll-like receptor 3