Thioredoxin reductase 2
Thioredoxin reductase 2 genes mapped on chromosome 22q11.2 that is highly expressed in ovary, prostate, liver,testis, uterus, colon and small intestine. It is a member of family selenocysteine-containing pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductases homologous toglutathione reductase with respect to primary structure yet different in C-terminal extension containing catalytically active penultimate selenocysteine.
Thioredoxin reductase 2 contains flavoenzymes which maintains thioredoxins that catalyze redox reactions using the reducing power of NADPH. Its selenocysteine residues are necessary for enzyme activity located in the C-terminal encoded by a UGA codon. It could directly reduced proteins like insulin.
Thioredoxin reductase 2 gene mutations or duplication is associated with elevated rates of mental retardation, autism and other behavioral phenotypes. Overexpression of gene segments weaken the prolonged maintenance of working memory on the other hand high copy of this gene segment contributes to highly selective set of phenotypes in learning and cognition during development.
Gene name: TXNRD2
Protein name: Thioredoxin reductase 2, mitochondrial