Thermodynamic equilibrium

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A thermodynamic system that is in thermal equilibrium, mechanical equilibrium, and chemical equilibrium.


A thermodynamic system is in equilibrium when there are:

(1) Thermal equilibrium : when two systems in thermal contact with each other do not exchange energy by heat since their temperatures are the same.

(2) Mechanical equilibrium : when pressures of the two systems are the same.

(3) Chemical equilibrium : when chemical potentials of the two systems are the same.