Syndecan-3 gene is mapped on chromosome 1p35.2 with 443 amino acids containing a large extracellular domain expressed in hypothalamic regions that controls energy balance and physiologically modulates feeding behavior. Its formation is a long filopodia-like structures, varicosities and microspikes in several cell lines where actin cytoskeleton is reorganized and colocalized in the cellular extensions at the cell periphery.
Syndecan-3 is mostly expressed in the nervous system, spleen and adrenal gland that play an important role in the progress and flexibility of neuronal connections by connecting extracellular signals to the regulation of the cytoskeleton thus, acts as a significant modulator of synaptic plasticity that persuades hippocampus dependent memory. It is also found in thecolon,stomach,aorta and rectum localized to the membrane in transitorily transfected cells.
Syndecan-3 gene mutation exhibited a novel form of muscular dystrophy typified by impaired locomotion, fibrosis and hyperplasia of myonuclei and satellite cells. It also associated with obesity in which ethnic differences in SDC3 polymorphisms is strongly linked with obesity.
Gene name: SDC3
Protein name: Syndecan-3