Signal response coupling

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signal response coupling --> signal transduction

The cascade of processes by which an extracellular signal (typically a hormone or neurotransmitter) interacts with a receptor at the cell surface, causing a change in the level of a second messenger for example calcium or cyclic AMP) and ultimately effects a change in the cells functioning (for example: triggering glucose uptake or initiating cell division). Can also be applied to sensory signal transduction, for example of light at photoreceptors.