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noun, plural: rDNAs

An abbreviation for the following terms:


rDNA can be used as an abbreviation for ribosomal DNA. Ribosomal DNA is the one that codes for the ribosomal RNA. Ribosomal RNA is the RNA component of the ribosome. It is the predominant component of the ribosome, i.e. about 60%. The other component or ribosome is proteins. Ribosomes are necessary in protein synthesis. Ribosomal RNA molecule has a large subunit and a small subunit. The large subunit functions as a ribozyme.

rDNA can also pertain to the recombinant DNA. A recombinant DNA is a genetically-engineered DNA molecule produced by splicing fragments of DNA from a different source or from another part of the same source, and then introduced into the recipient (host) cell. Recombinant DNAs are molecules of DNA that are formed through genetic recombination methods. There are different methods to produce recombinant DNA, i.e. by transformation, by phage introduction, and by non-bacterial transformation. The DNA fragments may come from any species. In essence, DNA molecules from two or more different sources (species) are cleaved by the action of restriction enzymes and then joined together through the action of ligases. An example of recombinant DNA is a plant DNA joined to a bacterial DNA.