An evolutionary protein that has been involve in various anti-proliferative actions on different cellular processes such as controlling cell proliferation, cristae morphogenesis and functional integrity of mitochondria.
Prohibitin gene is mapped on chromosome 17q21 which has also been expressed in fungi, plants and unicellular eukaryotes that inhibits DNA synthesis and regulates mitochondrial respiration activity. It is post-synthetically tailored protein restricted in the inner membrane of mitochondria where it controls cell cycle by blocking the transition between G1 and S phase as well as in the plasma membrane of B cells to mediate maturation.
Prohibitin controls the cell cycle by using both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms in which protein concentration is high at G1 but decline at some point in S phase and rise again in G2 which eventually decline in M phase. It consists of two members such as prohibitin 1 and prohibitin 2 that are homologous to each other and share more than 50% identical amino acid residues.
Prohibitin is a potential tumor suppressor that binds to retinoblastoma which inhibits the activity of E2F family in response to specific signaling cascades. It is associated in aging and various diseases like inflammation, cancer and obesity. A mutation of this protein is correlated at about 80% in breast cancer development and progression.
Gene name: PHB
Protein name: Prohibitin