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Pribnow box

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Pribnow box --> promoter

(Science: molecular biology) A region of dNA to which rNA polymerase binds before initiating the transcription of DNA into rNA.

The nucleotide at which transcription starts is designated _1 and nucleotides are numbered from this with negative numbers indicating upstream nucleotides and positive downstream nucleotides.

most bacterial promoters contain two consensus sequences that seem to be essential for the binding of the polymerase. The first, the pribnow box, is at about 10 and has the consensus sequence 5' TATAAT 3'. The second, the 35 sequence, is centred about 35 and has the consensus sequence 5' TTGACA 3'.

most factors that regulate gene transcription do so by binding at or near the promoter and affecting the initiation of transcription. Much less is known about eukaryote promoters, each of the three rNA polymerases has a different promoter.

rNA polymerase I recognises a single promoter for the precursor of rRNA.

rNA polymerase II, that transcribes all genes coding for polypeptides, recognises many thousands of promoters. most have the Goldberg Hogness or tATA box that is centred around position 25 and has the consensus sequence 5' TATAAAA 3'. Several promoters have a cAAT box around 90 with the consensus sequence 5' GGCCAATCT 3'. There is increasing evidence that all promoters for housekeeping genes contain multiple copies of a gC rich element that includes the sequence 5' GGGC 731 GG 3'. Transcription by polymerase II is also affected by more distant elements known as enhancers.

rNA polymerase III synthesises 5s ribosomal RNA, all tRNAs and a number of small rNAs. The promoter for RNA polymerase III is located within the gene either as a single sequence, as in the 5s RNA gene or as two blocks, as in all tRNA genes.