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From Biology-Online Dictionary
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1. Later in time; hence, later in the order of proceeding or moving; coming after; opposed to prior. Hesiod was posterior to homer. (Broome)

2. Situated behind; hinder; opposed to anterior.

3. (Science: anatomy) at or toward the caudal extremity; caudal; in human anatomy often used for dorsal.

4. (Science: botany) On the side next the axis of inflorescence; said of an axillary flower.

Origin: L. Posterior, compar. Of posterus coming after, from post after. See Post-.