Podoplanin is a transmembrane glycoprotein consisting of 162 amino acids in which 9 amino acids forms intracellular domain that has 38 kDa type I, mapped to chromosome 1. Its extracellular domain is O-glycosylated with sialic acid α-2, 3 linked to galactose forming the core part of the protein. It is receptive to detection by means of immunofluorescent staining that reveals to co-localize with nestin protein, a type VI intermediate filament protein expressed in neural tissues.
Podoplanin is usually found in human tissues such as kidney podocytes, heart,lung, placenta, skeletal muscle, salivary glands, in myofibroblasts of the breast, mesothelial cell and osteoblasts. It is also upregulated on diverse human cancers like squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity,lungs, larynx, esophagus, cervix, skin and in some tumor related of central nervous system.
A podoplanin physiological function is not fully determined yet it has been proposed as the marker of lung injury. As it is expressed in lymphatic cells shows a significant role as a specific marker forlymphatic endothelial cells and lymphangiogenesis wherein expression of endothelial cell upholds cell migration, adhesion and tube formation.
Gene name: PDPN
Protein name: Podoplanin