Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system and is concerned with the structure, development, function, chemistry, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. Modern tools and technologies (e.g. molecular biology, electrophysiology, computational methods, etc.) led to the advancement of research on nervous system. As a result, neuroscience is now comprised of various branches. Neurophysiology is one of these branches.
Neurophysiology is a branch of neuroscience that studies the physiology of the nervous system. It makes use of the physiological techniques in its research, e.g. electrophysiological recordings (using voltage clamp, patch clamp, etc.), calcium imaging, optogenetics, and molecular biology. Some of the topics of interests are electroencephalography, neuroplasticity, chemical synapse, brainstem, electromyography, exocytosis, transcranial magnetic stimulation, long-term potentiation, nerve conduction study, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Electroencephalograpy or EEG is one in which the electrical activity of the brain is recorded from the scalp. Electromyography and nerve conduction research are concerned with assessing the function of the nerves and muscles.
Neurophysiology is also concerned with studying disorders affecting the brain, e.g. meningitis, strokes, dementia, encephalitis, etc., as well as the nerve and the muscle such as myasthenia gravis and motor neurone disease.
Word origin: Greek neuron ("nerve") +physis ("nature, origin") + -logia ("knowledge")