Neuron specific enolase
Neuron specific enolase is the usual substance that always been detected in certain tumors like in small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma, medullary thyroid cancer, carcinoid tumors, melanoma and pancreatic endocrine tumors which then serves as a tumor marker where the level of concentration presents can offer information about the degree of the disease.
Neuron specific enolase catalyzes the alteration ofphosphoglycerate to phosphoenol pyruvate that contains 78kD gamma-homodimer consisting of alpha, beta and gamma isoform which have 12 exons that are distributed in excess of 9,213 nucleotides mapped to chromosome 12p13 and also known as Enolase 2. It is present in neuroendocrine cells, neurons and amine precursor uptake decarboxylation cells.
Neuron specific enolase elevated in serum assists certain diseases like neuronal destruction which are quite fast within days or weeks and the concentration level of this enzyme aided in the differential diagnosis of neuron-degenerative disorders as well as in the diagnosis ofdementia's like Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease. Increase neuron specific enolase correlates with tumor mass and metabolic activity and falling or rising level associated with shrinkage or recurrence of tumor mass.
Gene name: ENO2
Protein name: Gamma-enolase