Myeloid dendritic cell
noun, plural: myeloid dendritic cells
Dendritic cells are white blood cells morphologically characterized by having branching processes (dendrites). These cells occur in the mammalian immune system. They are primarily involved in antigen presentation, i.e. processing an antigen material and presenting it on the surface of their cell for T cell recognition.
One of the sources of dendritic cells is hematopoiesis. Based on this, the dendritic cells may be classified as either myeloid or lymphoid depending on the precursor cell from which they were derived. A myeloid dendritic cell would be a type of dendritic cell derived from a precursor cell in the myeloid lineage.
In hematopoiesis, a hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast) gives rise to two types of progenitor cells: (1) common myeloid progenitor cells (of the myeloid series) and (2) common lymphoid progenitor cells (of the lymphoid series). The myeloid dendritic cell is a mature cell that originated from the common myeloid progenitor cell. In the monocyte-dendritic cell series, the developmental stages are as follows: hemocytoblast → common myeloid progenitor (or CFU-GEMM) → CFU-GM → CFU-M → monoblast → promonocyte → monocyte. The monocyte may differentiate into a macrophage or a myeloid dendritic cell. Both macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells are capable of phagocytosis. However, dendritic cells are more involved in antigen presenting than ridding off cellular debris and foreign particles as macrophages do. Furthermore, macrophages do not have dendrites, which are present in dendritic cells.
Myeloid dendritic cells are also referred to as tissue-migratory, non-lymphoid dendritic cells or classical (conventional) dendritic cells.