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Monosaccharide

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Definition

noun, plural: monosaccharides

(biochemistry)

(1) A simple sugar, example: fructose, glucose, and ribose.

(2) The simplest form of carbohydrate; therefore, it cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis.

(3) A sugar that constitutes the building blocks of a more complex form of sugars such as oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

(4) Molecule with chemical formula (CH2O)n+m, and with the chemical structure H(CHOH)nC=O(CHOH)mH.


Supplement

Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbon atoms they contain:


Monosaccharides are classified the type of carbonyl group they contain:


Word origin: from Greek, monos: single + sacchar: sugar.
Synonym:
monosaccharose, simple sugar.
Compare:
disaccharide, polysaccharide.
See also:
carbohydrate.