Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system and is concerned with the structure, development, function, chemistry, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. Modern tools and technologies (e.g. molecular biology, electrophysiology, computational methods, etc.) led to the advancement of research on nervous system. As a result, neuroscience is now comprised of various branches.
Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that deals with the molecular aspect of the nervous system, such as molecular biology, molecular genetics, protein chemistry, and other related fields. Thus, it is interested in understanding topics such as molecular neuroanatomy, mechanisms of molecular signaling in the nervous system, the effects of genetics and epigenetics on neuronal development, and the molecular basis for neuroplasticity and neurodegenerative diseases.1 Research in this field is generally geared toward determining key molecules that play a role in the structure and the function of the brain.
1 Revest, P. & Longstaff, A. (1998). Molecular neuroscience. Oxford New York: Bios Scientific Pub. Springer.