Lipocalin-1 is a member of lipocalin family that is encoded by LCN1 gene in human. It is a small secretory protein that mapped on chromosome 9q34.3 and the entire gene is approximately 6.2 kb in size that contains 6 protein coding exons with 3’- nontranslated exon.
Lipocalin-1 is a new member of the superfamily hydrophobic molecule transporters that functions primarily in lipid binding protein in tears that is overexpressed in response to manifold stimuli including stress and infection. It also serves as a marker for chromosomes aneuploidy and autoantigen in Sjogren's syndrome.
Lipocalin-1 can bind to various chemical structures ranging from lipids to retinoids and to the macrocyclic antibiotics rifampicin as well as to the event of microbial siderophores. It also inhibits the cysteine-protease papain akin to cystatin and necessary in nonimmunologic defense in the control of inflammatory processes in oral and ocular tissues thereby reveals clear evidence to induced infection or inflammation which supported the idea that this protein functions as a physiologic protection factor of epithelium.
Gene name: LCN1
Protein name: Lipocalin-1