Helicobacter pylori

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A gram-negative curved rod bacterium associated as causative agent in stomach infections including peptic ulcers and gastritis in human.


Helicobacter pylori has a sized of about 3 micrometer long with 0.5 micrometer wide that needs lower concentration of oxygen. It generates catalase, oxidase and urease and contains hydrogenase used to obtain energy by oxidizing molecular hydrogen. It also contains outer membrane consisting lipopolysaccharide and phospholipids.

Helicobacter pylori able to enter and inhabits in the digestive tract that attacks the lining of the stomach which then caused sores and stomach ulcers at the lining of the upper part of small intestine hindering food from moving through the digestive tract and might also lead to stomach cancer. It is implicated in gastritis an ulcer at the duodenum section of the gut associated with inflammation which has at least 20% lifetime risk of developing peptic ulcers.

Helicobacter pylori typically infects stomach especially during childhood where inside it this bacterium has the capability to change the conditions inside the intestine by reducing the acidity for survival penetrating the lining protected by mucus thus, immune cells cannot detect and interfere its growth and development. It is commonly found in food, water, utensils and direct contact to infected individual’s saliva or body fluids.

Scientific classification:

Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Epsilonproteobacteria
Order: Campylobacterales
Family: Helicobacteraceae
Genus: Helicobacter
Species: Helicobacter pylori

See also:



Peptic ulcer