A protein involved as an essential regulator of cellular iron homeostasis and hemoglobin maturation which does not acquire thioredoxin action since it lacks the preserved design necessary for catalytic activity.
Glutaredoxin-3 gene mapped on chromosome 10q26.3 consists of 82 amino acids residues containing a redox-active motif typical of glutaredoxins family which shows 33% homology to the glutaredoxin-1. It colocalized with Mlp which anchors calcineurin to the Z disc in the sarcomere that is important for calcineurin signaling. It binds one iron-sulfur cluster per dimer between subunits by glutathione and cysteine residue from each subunit.
Glutaredoxin-3 is significant in transcriptional iron regulation andintracellular iron distribution in which during deficiency in cells is incapable to efficiently use iron in spite of unimpaired cellular iron uptake thereby suggesting the evolutionary conserved role of cytosolic monothiol multidomain glutaredoxins in cellular iron metabolism pathways.
Glutaredoxin-3 depletion severely impairs the maturation of the hemoglobin resulting in the decrease activities of several cytosolic Fe/S proteins like iron regulatory protein 1, a major component of posttranscriptional iron regulation as a consequence it decreased the level of ferritin and increased level oftransferrin receptor leads to cellular iron starvation.
Gene name: GLRX3
Protein name: Glutaredoxin-3