Glutaredoxin-2 gene mapped on chromosome 1q31.2--31.3 that contains 5 exons transcribed to 0.9kb which are ubiquitously expressed in various tissues wherein two alternatively spliced mRNA isoform differ in their 5’region that correspond to 125 C-terminal residue but with different N-terminal extensions of 39 and 40 residues. It is mostly located in thenucleus but also minimally present in themitochondria that correspond to a functional N-terminal mitochondrial translocation signal.
Glutaredoxin-2 has extensively elevated catalytic action in the reduction of mixed disulphides with glutathione compared to other glutaredoxins. It is structurally similar to glutathione-S-transferase but no apparent sequence similarity that embraced the primary function to catalyse reversibly glutathionylation of proteins with GSH in cellular redox regulation including the response to oxidative stress.
Glutaredoxin-2 is widely expressed in the brain, skeletal muscle, heart, thymus, colon, kidney, spleen, small intestine, liver, lung andplacenta yet no expression occurs in peripheral blood leukocytes. It has two isoforms such as GRX2a which is targeted to mitochondria and GRX2b that localized in the nucleus. It has the ability to received electrons not only from GSH but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions.
Gene name: GLRX2
Protein name: Glutaredoxin-2