Glutamic acid decarboxylase
Glutamic acid decarboxylases are able to catalyze the alteration of L-glutamic acid to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that signifies important inhibitory neurotransmitter in neurons and beta pancreatic cells. The two isoform of human GAD are identified as GAD65 and GAD67 that are encoded separately in gene. GAD65 contains 65,000 polypeptides with 585 amino acid residues while the GAD67 holds 67,000 polypeptides with 594 amino acids. Both of these isoform are present in pancreas and brain.
Glutamic acid decarboxylase shows significant linked between autoimmune response and certain disease like it plays an important role in the early detection and treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus due to the autoimmune response against GAD in the pancreatic cells and in autoimmune response against glutamic acid decarboxylase in neurons demonstrate concerned in rare neurological condition known as Stiff-Man syndrome. Insufficiency of this enzyme has been shown to lead to pyridoxine dependence with seizures.
Theimmune system recognizes unfamiliar substances by the distinctive antigens which are chemical markers situated on the facade of these substances. Autoimmunity happen when the immune system incorrectly recognize native cells and tissues as foreign, as a result an attack on cells and tissues by the immune system.
Gene name: GAD1
Protein name: Glutamate decarboxylase 1