Fibroblast activation protein
An integral membrane serine peptidase expressed at the sites oftissue remodeling involved in proteolytic activities to promote cell invasiveness towards extracellular matrix, support tumor growth and control of epithelial-mesenchyma interactions during development, tissue repair and epithelial carcinogenesis.
Fibroblast activation protein gene is mapped on chromosome 2q24.2 that contains 26 exons which catalytically active as 170kDa dimer with 97 kDa subunits and has dipeptidase and gelatinase activity that requires glycerin in P2 position. It demonstrates several functions due to the abilities to form complexes with each other and to network with other membrane-associated molecules. It localized in cell surface protrusions functions in processing soluble factors and degradation of extracellular matrix components necessary to the migration and matrix invasion occurs during tumor invasion andmetastasis.
Fibroblast activation protein is a cell bound dual specificity dipeptidyl peptidase and gelatinase expressed by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) at tissue remodeling interface in human cirrhosis, thus contributes the HSC-induced extracellular matrix of cirrhosis. It is selectively expressed in reactive stromal fibroblasts of epithelial cancers, granulation tissue of wound healing as well as in malignant cells of bone and soft tissue sarcomas.
Fibroblast activation protein caused rapid hypoxic necrosis of both cancer and stromal cells in immunogenic tumors by the process of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha which is useful in cancer therapeutics.
Gene name: FAP
Protein name: Seprase