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Enterobacter cloacae

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A gram-negative rod shaped and facultative anaerobes designated as opportunistic pathogens mostly on individuals with compromised immune systems.


Enterobacter cloacae has a size of at least 0.3-0.6 by 0.8-2.0 micrometer with peritrichous flagella that thrives in mesophilic environment with an optimal temperatures at around 37’C. It able to generates ATP through aerobic respiration when oxygen is available but has the capability to shift into fermentation in absence of oxygen.

Enterobacter cloacae contains two cell membrane, that composed of lipid-A known as endotoxins causes sepsis in which cytokines is released making toxins that run into tissues and blood stream containing enzymes beta-lactamase that is responsible for antibiotic resistance. It also found in fruits, vegetables and hot water treatment though this bacterium is pathogenic to human yet it is somehow useful as a biological control for plant disease like seed-rooting oomycte and as insect pest.

Enterobacter cloacae has the highinfection rate compared to other Enterobacter members that shows nosocomial pathogens causing bacteremia, skin and soft tissue infections, endocarditis, septic arthritis, ophthalmic infections, lower respiratory tract infections and osteomyelitis. It is mostly infect young and elderly that caused prolonged hospitalization wherein pathogen caused morbidity and mortality that may be contracted through urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin and cross-contamination.

Scientific classifications:

Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Enterobacter
Species: Enterobacter cloacae

See also: