Cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is a form of an acquired haemolytic anaemia. It occurs when the antibodies act against own red blood cells. As a result, the red blood cells of a person with a severe automimmune haemolytic anaemia would have a lifespan reduced into just few days from the normal 100-120 days.1 Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia may either be warm or cold depending on the characteristics of the autoantibodies involved. The warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia occurs in body temperature (i.e. 37 °C) whereas the cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia happens in cold temperature (i.e. 28-31 °C). The warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is more common than the cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. 2
The cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is caused by cold-reacting autoantibodies. The hemolysis of the red blood cells occurs mostly at cold temperatures. Cold agglutinin disease and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria are examples of cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. The common antibody involved is the IgM antibody directed against the I/i antigens on red blood cells.
- cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia
- cold antibody autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
1 Sawitsky, A. & Ozaeta, P. B. (1970). "Disease-associated autoimmune hemolytic anemia". Bull N Y Acad Med 46 (6): 411–26.
2 Cotran, R. S., Kumar, V., Fausto, N., Nelso F., Robbins, S. L., & Abbas, A. K. (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders. p. 637.