Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system and is concerned with the structure, development, function, chemistry, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. Modern tools and technologies (e.g. molecular biology, electrophysiology, computational methods, etc.) led to the advancement of research on nervous system. As a result, neuroscience is now comprised of various branches. Cognitive neuroscience is the branch of neuroscience that studies the biological processes in cognition. It focuses primarily on the neural connections in the brain that is involved in mental processes. Cognition in the broader sense refers to all mental processes. However, in neuroscience, it was divided into two major divisions: affective neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience. The affective neuroscience is concerned primarily with the neural mechanisms of emotions. Mental processes that are non-emotions such as memory, problem solving, mental imagery, etc. are the primary focus of cognitive neuroscience.
Cognitive neuroscience may also be a subfield of psychology since it attempts to relate mental processes with behavioral manifestations. The different methods used in this field include behavioral genetics, psychophysical experiments, functional neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies of the neural systems.