Cluster of Differentiation 163
Cluster of Differentiation 163 gene is mapped on chromosome 12p13.3 with a molecular mass of 130kDa that consists of 1048 amino acid residues and single transmembrane segment with several splice variants. It has at least two distinct functions, clearance of hemoglobin in its cell bound form and participation in anti-inflammation as a soluble factor.
Cluster of Differentiation 163 plays an important role in the uptake and recycling of iron via endocytosis of hemoglobin and subsequent breakdown of heme that binds complexes in a calcium-dependent and pH-dependent manner. It mediates hemoglobin-haptoglobin uptake by peripheral blood monocytes that constitutes clearance pathway which acts at the site of intravascular hemolysis to reduce circulation and toxicity.
Cluster of Differentiation 163 is a helpful accessory in distinguishing AFX from other malignant cutaneous spindle cell tumors and offers improved specificity in recognizing cutaneous dendritic lesions. It acts as an innate immune sensor and inducer of local inflammation during bacterial infection. It is also associated in diabetes mellitus in which haptoglobin genotype displays lesser CD163 scavenger receptor level and shows damaged hemoglobin clearance aptitude with augmented occurrence of myocardial infarction.
Gene name: CD163
Protein name: Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130