Clostridium botulinum can exist as a vegetative cell or spore wherein the later is in dormant state that can exist in harsh conditions while the former cannot. It can tolerate traces of oxygen due to enzyme superoxide dismutase an important antioxidant defense in all cells exposed to oxygen and generates heat-resistant endospores that are commonly found in soil.
Clostridium botulinum is divided into four distinct phenotypes and seven serotypes wherein botulinum toxin can cause rigorous paralytic disease in both human and animals that known to be the most potent toxin either natural or synthetic.
Clostridium botulinum is predominantly found in marine sediments and soil as spores which is generally harmless until it begin to grow as vegetative cell into active bacteria and begin to produce neurotoxins, a poisonous chemicals that affects the central nervous system that adversely affect nerves and nerve tissue which is consists of seven different types of neurotoxins designated by letters from A-G where B,E and F caused illness in humans.
Species: Clostridium botulinum