In humans, the chromosomes occur in pairs and a typical somatic cell would contain 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus. Each of these pairs has a characteristic length and banding pattern. There are two types of chromosomes: autosomes and allosomes. There are also two sets: the first set comes from the mother and the second set, from the father. Using idiograms, each chromosome may be identified one from the other based on the relative size and the banding pattern.
Chromosome 11 is a submetacentric autosome. It spans almost 135 million base pairs (i.e. about 4 to 4.5 % of the total DNA). It is likely to contain about 1200 or less than 1400 genes. Some of the genes in chromosome 11 are FAT3 (coding for fat atypical cadherin 3), GLYAT (for glycine-N-acyltransferase), INS (insulin gene), MMP7 (for matrix metalloproteinases), and REXO2 (for RNA exonuclease 2).
Some of the diseases and disorders related to the genes on chromosome 11 include autism (neurexin 1), albinism, beta thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, depression, Niemann-Pick disease, porphyria, sickle cell anemia, and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency.