In humans, the chromosomes occur in pairs and a typical somatic cell would contain 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus. Each of these pairs has a characteristic length and banding pattern. There are two types of chromosomes: autosomes and allosomes. There are also two sets: the first set comes from the mother and the second set, from the father. Using idiograms, each chromosome may be identified one from the other based on the relative size and the banding pattern.
Chromosome 10 is a submetacentric autosome. It spans almost 133 million base pairs (i.e. about 4 to 4.5 % of the total DNA). Some of the genes found in this chromosome are CAMK1D (coding for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID), CDH23 (for cadherin-like 23), HELLS (for lymphoid-specific helicase), PCDH15 (for protocadherin 15), TMEM10 (for opalin), UCN3 (for urocortin-3), ZNF37A (for zinc finger protein 37A).
Some of the diseases and disorders related to the genes on chromosome 10 include Apert syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, glioblastoma multiforme, and Pfeiffer syndrome.