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From Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online Dictionary
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(Science: procedure) The process of separating fractions of systems in a centrifuge. The most basic separation is to sediment a pellet at the bottom of the tube, leaving a supernatant at a given centrifugal force.

in this case sedimentation is determined by size and density of the particles in the system amongst other factors.

density may be used as a basis for sedimentation in density gradient centrifugation. at very high g values molecules may be separated, i.e. Ultracentrifugation. In continuous centrifugation the supernatant is removed continuously as it is formed.