Catenin contains two different molecules such as alpha-catenin that attached to actin micro-filaments and beta-catenin attached to cytoplasmic domains of cadherin which in turn plays a vital function in liver development. Transmutation of beta-catenin is related with many cancers like colorectal carcinoma, lung cancer, endometrial and ovarian cancer.
Catenins are proteins found in multifaceted with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. It is also functions in cellular association and polarity prior to the development and integration of Wnt signaling pathways and cadherins, since cell to cell adhesion required in higher organisms to uphold structures and functions though these complexes assists to regulate cell growth in generating and sustaining epithelial layers to form adheren junctions.
Catenins consists of 40 amino acids long that fold together into a single rigid protein domain with an elongated shaped that repeat into three alpha helices. The fold located near the N-terminus that has an elongated helix with a twist formed via fusion of helices 1 and 2 because of this intricate repeats the catenin structures possess a slight curvature to form outer convex and inner concave that hand out as a ligand-binding site for various interactions.
Word Origin: catena= “chain”
Gene name: CTNNB1
Protein name: Catenin beta-1