Carcinoembryonic antigen is a glycoprotein that usually involved in cell adhesion during fetal growth but stops the productions on normal adults yet present in highly smoker individual. It can be used as a tumor marker to examine colorectalcarcinoma treatment and to identify recurrences after surgical resection through monitoring the measurement of biological serum level. CEA level also increased in pancreatic carcinoma, lung carcinoma, gastric carcinoma and breast carcinoma.
Carcinoembryonic antigen belongs to the family of immunoglobulin superfamily. In human it consists of 29 genes in which 18 are normally expressed. It is a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol glycoprotein that dole out as the functional colon carcinoma that of critical metastatic dissemination of colon cancer cells and is characterized as members of CD66 cluster.
CEA is a kind of protein molecule that can be found in different cells of the body, but is normally related with certain tumors and the developing fetus. An elevated level is affected by multiple factors wherein it is more prominent in tumor with lymph node than organ confined tumors. Liver malfunction increases CEA levels since the liver is the primary site of CEA metabolism.