CXC chemokine receptor -4
A chemokine receptor that responds to chemokines, particularly CXCL12 of CXC family
Chemokine receptors are cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines. Chemokines belong to a class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. Chemokines can be divided into at least four structural branches: c (chemokines, c), cc (chemokines, cc), cx3c (chemokines, cx3c), and cxc (chemokines, cxc). The classification is according to the variations in a shared cysteine motif. And based on this classification, the chemokine receptors may in turn be grouped according to the cytokine family they respond to. They may be classified into (1) CXC chemokine receptors, (2) CC chemokine receptors, (3) CX3C chemokine receptors, and (4) XC chemokine receptors. Thus, CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) belongs to CXC chemokine receptors that respond to chemokines of CXC family, particularly the CXCL12. The interaction between CXCL12 and the CXC chemokine receptor-4 triggers calcium signaling that eventuates to a cell response, e.g. chemotaxis. CXCL12 is a potent chemokine that triggers the chemotaxis of lymphocytes. In humans, the CXCR4 is encoded by the gene CXCR4 gene.1
The CXCR4 though is one of the chemokine receptors that HIV uses to gain entry to and infect CD4+ T cells.
Abbreviation / Acronym: CXCR4
- cluster of differentiation 184 or CD184
1 Moriuchi, M., Moriuchi, H., Turner, W., Fauci, A. S. (Nov 1997). "Cloning and analysis of the promoter region of CXCR4, a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry". Journal of Immunology 159 (9): 4322–9.