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(Science: radiobiology) The increase in absorbed dose with depth below the surface in a material irradiated by a beam of x-rays or gamma rays. Build-up may be two kinds:

1. Electron Build-up: this is due to an increasing electron fluence in the material.

2. Photon Build-up: this is due to scattering in broad beams of radiation.

For high energy beams, process 1. Is the more important.