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noun, plural: bones

The rigid organ comprised of bone tissues, and forms the skeleton of most vertebrates


The bone is an organ that forms the skeleton of vertebrates. It is formed from bone tissues, which are mineralized connective tissues. Apart from bone tissues, other types of tissues in bone are marrow, endosteum, periosteum, nerves, blood vessels, and cartilage. The fundamental functional unit is called the Haversian system (or osteon).

There are different types of bones based on their morphological features: (1) long bones (e.g. bones of the limbs), (2) short bones (e.g. tarsals and carpals), (3) flat bones (e.g. cranium, ilium, sternum, and rib cage), (4) irregular bones (e.g. vertebrae), and (5) sesamoid bones (e.g. patella, pisiform of the wrist, lenticular process of the incus, first metacarpal bone, and first metatarsal bone).

The major functions of bones are to provide structural support (act as the body's framework) and to protect internal organs. In humans, the bone marrow of cancellous bone is the site of hematopoiesis. The bone also serves as a reservoir of minerals, e.g. calcium and phosphorus.

The bone is constantly being made and replaced in the process called remodeling.


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