Beta-Glucuronidase gene is mapped on chromosome 7q11.21 contains 12 exons span at about 21kb long that is 290kDa tetrameric protein with an isoelectric point of 4.8. encodes hydrolase that degrades glycosaminoglycans including dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. It forms homotetramer localized in the lysosome composed of identical subunits. It occurs in the spleen, endocrine glands and liver.
Beta-Glucuronidase is an inducible enzyme elaborated by anaerobic E.coli, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides and Clostridia where the boosting activity of this enzyme involved in increased enterohepatic recirculation of toxins, hormones and carcinogens thereby it is essential for the normal enterohepatic recirculation of endogenous compounds like vitamin D, estrogen and thyroid hormone.
Beta-Glucuronidase gene mutations results in mucopolysaccharidosis type VII and its deficiency involved in Sly’s syndrome. Wide range antibiotics suppress intestinal microflora that reduces beta-glucuronidase activity in which the intestinal reabsorption of estrogen and the bioavailability of genestein and daidzein depends upon the initial hydrolysis of beta-glucuronidase and sulfate enzymes thus, low level of this enzyme may reduce the efficacy of these compounds.
Gene name: GUSB
Protein name: Beta-glucuronidase