The involuntary passage of urine at nighttime in children age 4 to 5 years. most bed-wetting stops by the age of three. Enuresis is twice as common in boys as in females. Causes have been attributed to delay in bladder muscle development, adjustment disorder (parents too controlling or aggressive, too early (and too coercive) of toilet training, diabetes and spinal cord lesions (rare). A urinary tract infection should be excluded in the cases of a sudden onset of bed-wetting.
treatment includes behaviour modification (rewarding good behaviour), supportive and helpful attitude by parents, limiting fluids at bedtime and alarm devices (a sleep pad that sets off an alarm when it gets wet). Vasopressin nasal spray has been used successfully to treat this condition in some children.