A protein demonstrated a critical role for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis necessary for the execution of autophagy and plays an important role in development, neurodegeneration and tumorigenesis.
Beclin 1 consists of 450 amino acids containing a coiled region that shows homology to the myosin-like protein which is needed for the abscission incytokinesis functions in antiviral host defense against infection by neurovirulent strain virus.
Beclin 1 is a crucial component to establish a role for autophagy in tumor suppression in which mutations of other genes operating in this pathway may partakes to tumor formation via deregulation of autophagy. At about 2.2kb transcript present at high level in skeletal muscle yet it is minimally detected in all tissues.
Beclin 1 is the mammalian orthologue of the yeast apg6 gene that can set off the deficiency in autophagy present in apg6 strains which stimulates autophagy when overexpressed in cells. It is present in nervous system as a multifaceted that binds to glutamate receptor leading to the activation of autophagy and death of cerebellar Purkinje cells. It also binds with Bcl-2 to regulate apoptosis and is monoallelically removed in breast and ovarian cancers expressing a decreased level in tumors.
Gene name: BECN1
Protein name: Beclin-1