Annexin A10 gene is mapped on chromosome 4q33 containing 13 exons having 70 amino acids with high variable N-terminal that belongs to the calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein family. It is highly expressed in adult liver and hepatocellular carcinoma but absent in multiple adult and fetal tissues, cholangiocarcinoma and other several common carcinomas.
Annexin A10 implicated as direct progenitors of Annexin A6 octad formation through chromosomal duplication within the period of genome development. When it is down-regulates together with p53 mutation acted synergistically toward high grade hepatocellular carcinoma. It has a distinct features including extraordinary expression, an unusual ablation of the type II calcium-binding sites in tetrad repeats and codon removal in sealed repeat.
Annexin A10 acts as a marker of liver differentiation and growth arrest as well as down-regulation associated with malignant phenotype of hepatocytes, progression of hepatocellular carcinoma and vascular invasion that leads to poor prognosis. It is also serves as a novel potential target of gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma because its down-regulation is associated with malignant liver cells.
Gene name: ANXA10
Protein name: Annexin A10