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Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

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A gram-negative nonmotile aerobic and encapsulated facultative bacterium involved as respiratory tract pathogen in pigs.


Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is implicated as a causative agent in porcine pleuropneumoniae a highly contagious respiratory disease affecting mainly young pigs manifested with bloodstained discharge from the mouth, anorexia, fever, mild diarrhea, cyanosis, lethargy and spontaneous abortion in sows.

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is able to exhibit beta-hemolysis activity on blood or chocolate agar that needs carbon dioxide for growth and it is positive both in urease and porphyrin. It is susceptible to antibiotics including tetracycline, ceftiofur, synthetic penicillins, sulfonamides and tylosin.

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae mode of infection undergo attachment in the epithelial cells of tonsils which move down to the respiratory tract and as the bacterium replicates it releases hemolysins, cytotoxins and lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane then following the lysis of macrophage releases lysozymes which in turn damage the tissues resulting in porcine pleuropneumonia.

Scientific classification:

 Kingdom: Bacteria
 Phylum: Proteobacteria 
 Class: Gammaproteobacteria
 Order: Pasteurellales
 Family: Pasteurellaceae
 Genus: Actinobacillus
 Species: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae 

See also:

• Bacteria

• Pleuropneumonia

• Porcine diseases