Aarskog syndrome

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Aarskog syndrome

(Science: syndrome) Grier et al. (1983) reported father and 2 sons with typical aarskog syndrome, including short stature, hypertelorism, and shawl scrotum.

They tabulated the findings in 82 previous cases. X-linked recessive inheritance has been repeatedly suggested. The family reported by Welch (1974) had affected males in 3 consecutive generations. Thus, there is either genetic heterogeneity or this is an autosomal dominant with strong sex-influence and possibly ascertainment bias resulting from use of the shawl scrotum as a main criterion. Stretchable skin was present in the cases of Grier et al. (1983). Teebi et al. (1993) reported the case of an affected mother and 4 sons (including a pair of monozygotic twins) by 2 different husbands. They suggested that the manifestations were as severe in the mother as in the sons and that this suggested autosomal dominant inheritance. Actually, the mother seemed less severely affected, compatible with x-linked inheritance.

clinical signs: mild to moderate short stature,normocephaly, widows peak hair, maxillary hypoplasia, broad nasal bridge, anteverted nostrils, long philtrum 1000 , broad upper lip, curved linear dimple below the lower lip, hypertelorism, ptosis, down-slanted palpebral fissures, ophthalmoplegia, strabismus, hyperopic astigmatism, large cornea, floppy ears, lop-ears,cleft lip/palate, shawl scrotum, saddle-bag scrotum, cryptorchidism, brachydactyly, digital contractures, clinodactyly, mild syndactyly, transverse palmar crease, lymphoedema of the feet, ligamentous laxity, osteochondritis dissecans, proximal finger joint hyperextensibility, flexed distal finger joints, genu recurvatum, flat feet, stretchable skin, cervical spine hypermobility, odontoid anomaly, macrocytic anaemia, hemochromatosis, hepatomegaly, portal cirrhosis, imperforate anus, rectoperineal fistula, interstitial pulmonary disease, sternal deformity.

Inheritance: Sex-influenced autosomal dominant form, also x-linked form.