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Adenosine monophosphate

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(biochemistry) A nucleotide composed of adenine, ribose and a phosphate group; an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine, and with a chemical formula: C10H14N5O7P


Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a nucleoside triphosphate, i.e. a type of nucleotide particularly comprised of a nucleoside and a phosphate group. Its nucleoside contains a purine base, i.e. an adenine attached to the ribose sugar. It has only one phosphate group attached to the nucleoside. AMP is used as a monomer in RNA. It may also be used to regenerate adenosine triphosphate (ATP): i.e. AMP + ATP → 2 ADP then ADP + Pi → ATP.

AMP may form as an end-product of certain biochemical reactions. One way is through combining two molecules of ADP during ATP synthesis by the action of the enzyme adenylate kinase: 2 ADP → ATP + AMP. Another is through hydrolysis of one inorganic phosphate of ADP: ADP → AMP + Pi. It may also be produced through the hydrolysis of ATP into AMP and pyrophosphate: ATP → AMP + PPi.

AMP is sometimes converted into inosine monophosphate (IMP) with the catalytic action of myoadenylate deaminase. AMP may also be converted to uric acid that is excreted from the body. AMP may also occur as a cyclic structure, cyclic AMP.

IUPAC name: [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate Chemical formula: C10H14N5O7P




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