Carbon emissions in Alaska relied on measurements of trees and changes in surface organic layer carbon pools after large-scale burning. In 2015 hundreds of forest fires burned across the state of Alaska resulted as second highest acreage burned in a year. Nearly 300 forest fires occur in a week, as a result over 61,000 lightning strikes detected during this period. As of mid-September a total of 2.1 million hectares has been burned statewide in 700 separate forest fires. Deeper burning of surface layers happened during fires and on more well-drained sites at moderate to high severity levels. Summer of 2015 in Alaska has an exceptionally warm and dry condition following the largest forest fires recorded in decade.
Forest fires estimated carbon emission
Estimated burned depth from forest fires consumed almost the surface organic moss layers at about 5cm-10cm depth. This estimate confirmed using the relationship of every centimeter of organic mat thickness and soil temperature under organic layer. In sternly burned forest a total consumption of living moss organic layer is directly associated with warming at the soil surface layer. Additionally, soil temperature at about 30cm depth has 8–10 °C higher compared to unburned forest sites. Therefore, forest fire impacts on forested areas caused a fivefold decrease in surface organic layer thickness. As well as doubling of water storage in the soil layer, doubling in thaw depth and increase soil temperature.
Moreover, carbon emissions include the measurement above ground biomass and changes in surface organic layer carbon pools. In 2017 field surveys of Tanana, Alaska shows no live surface organic layers remained from 2015 forest fires. Due to these intense fires only residual dead, charred moss and lichen left behind that could not insulate soil layers. Also, post-fire thickness of organic layer and thermal conductivity are important factors to determine soil temperature and thaw depth. Nevertheless, the role of mineral to the total ecosystem carbon emissions is higher in forests that are normally calculated.
Forest fires have overall percentage of more than 60% in interior Alaska. And this abrupt removal of moss and soil organic layer elevates post-fire soil temperatures and thaw depths. Because of this a massive loss of carbon and nitrogen from soil layer minerals. As well as, a much warmer and wetter surface layer compared to unburned forest nearby. Therefore, carbon emissions are due to the addition of mass wasting of soil mineral in 2 years following forest fires.
Source: Prepared by Joan Tura from BMC Carbon Balance and Management
Volume 13:2 January 8, 2018
Aflatoxins produced by a certain molds that are poisonous carcinogens which grow mostly in soil, hay, decaying plants and grains. It can affect livestock and human as natural contaminants in foods like peanuts and corn meal. There are four types of aflatoxins these are B1, B2, G1 and G2 in which all are teratogenic, carcinogenic and immunosuppressive. Its toxic effect might be due to the generation of free radicals resulting into lipid peroxidation that damage biological system. On the other hand yogurt is produced from the bacterial fermentation of milk. In which bacteria produces lactic acid that acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and tart flavor. However, yogurt contains plenty of probiotic bacteria that offer benefits as microflora in the intestines. It also helps boost immune response and suppress carcinogenesis since fermented dairy products contain live lactic acid bacteria.
Selenium-fortified yogurt protects against aflatoxin toxicity
Yogurt has been known as therapeutic to various disorders including lactose intolerance, indigestion, intoxication, gastroenteritis, kidney, liver disorders and cancer. Selenium added to yogurt considered as the basic trace elements vital for normal growth and development in humans and animals. It also acts as anti-oxidant as well as improves nutritional values. Additionally, selenium has both enzymatic and structural functions that protect harmful reactive oxygen and minimized the production of hydrogen peroxide from aflatoxins. Ingestion of aflatoxins leads to weight loss due to the change in digestive enzymes activity that causes malabsorption of nutrients.
Aflatoxins will impair the biosynthesis of protein which results to the degranulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. It also caused liver fibrosis and poses health risk to humans and livestock. In this research , a positive results shows that selenium-fortified yogurt suppress the level of aflatoxins in rats. It also proved that with selenium contents inhibit the activity of enzymes related to carcinogenesis. Since yogurt improves intestinal mucosa and microflora that influence intestinal barrier. These yogurt bacteria inhibit the peroxidation of lipids by foraging reactive oxygen.
Therefore, consumption of nuts infected with aflatoxins caused toxicity mainly at the kidney and liver. But intake of selenium-fortified yogurt can definitely suppress against aflatoxins toxicity. In general, application of probiotic bacteria and selenium is vital and viable therapeutic approach to improve safety in food industry. Indeed, it is recommended to eat fresh nuts to avoid aflatoxins along with selenium-fortified yogurt to lessen its toxicity.
Source: Prepared by Joan Tura from BMC Agriculture and Food Security
Volume 7:21, June 2018
Jatropha belongs to the flowering plants that have been known for biodiesel production. It has been intensively promoted for renewable energy source in tropical areas worldwide. For the last decades many projects of jatropha has been implemented in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In which most of its purpose is to reduce energy dependency, sustainable development and greenhouse gases emissions. Oil from this plant is converted into biodiesel and used for diesel engines. Also, its protein-rich product used for fish and animal feeds as well as on high quality organic fertilizers. Recently, profitability and viability of jatropha declined and unexpected low yield as well as lower price for the seed. But labor and maintenance costs of the fields still the same that is why cultivation of jatropha slows down. The aim of this research is to assess different factors affecting farmers on jatropha cultivation in Chiapas Mexico.
Production of Jatropha in Chiapas Mexico
Plenty of small farmers cultivate jatropha to improved livelihood productions. Yet, in recent years many of them discontinue planting due to some reasons. Such as, socio-economic, environmental and institutional factors motivating decisions of the farmers to discontinue the production. The Chiapas Government provides subsidy to the farmers including seeds and seedlings as well as technical assistance for the maintenance. Between 2007-2011 52% in Chiapas Mexico planted jatropha yet, about a year after abandonment of plantations is rampant among farmers.
As a results farmers perceived that cultivation of jatropha will not offer good economic benefits. Because it is just a waste of time, costs of labor, energy, land and financial resources. However, wealthy farmers adopt the cultivation and have access to develop new technologies. But those who received subsidy from the Government are relatively poorer which tend to abandon the cultivation. The occurrence also of pest and diseases is the other factors that motivate farmers to abandon the cultivation.
In addition, incentive payment, lack of profitability of the crop, commercialization and wealth status are important factors that makes the farmers decide to abandon jatropha cultivation. Therefore, this research may be helpful for future implementation of bioenergy. Not only in Mexico but to several places worldwide where similar programmes of jatropha production have been implemented. It is very important to evaluate the trade-offs between cost and gains of the farmers. Particularly the accurate calculation of cost benefits analyses that a farmer can make. So that it would prevent abandonment of plantation and to ensure continuity of the farmers.
Source: Prepared by Joan Tura from Energy for Sustainable Development
Volume 42, February 2018, Pages 77-86