whats ATP?

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whats ATP?

Post by animejunkie13 » Mon Jan 02, 2006 8:10 am

im doing a science project, and i was going through the tutorials, and ATP came up in respiration. whats ATP?
could you simplify it for me?
i found it in the dictionary, but i dont understand it.
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Post by GreenDog » Mon Jan 02, 2006 10:04 am

ATP – Adenosine 3 phosphate is an adenosine molecule with 3 phosphates attached at the end.
It is the energy coin of the cell, energy is stored in this molecule much like money is in coins. When a phosphate is detached from ATP energy is freed and used for whatever it is needed for, and the ATP becomes ADP (Adenosine 2 phosphate).
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Post by hurly » Mon Jan 02, 2006 9:25 pm

ATP is biology power! 8)

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Post by ZakaSPFC » Tue Jan 03, 2006 12:21 am

Adenosine tri phosphate. The cell stores energy in these high energy phosphate bonds

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Post by MrMistery » Wed Jan 04, 2006 10:02 pm

guys, do a forum search. This stuff has discussed, overdiscussed and recycle-discussed in the past:
about3279.html&highlight=atp+adenosine+triphosphate
about3453.html&highlight=atp+chemical+formula
about246.html&highlight=atp+adenosine+triphosphate
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Post by CoolJay221 » Thu Jan 05, 2006 5:16 pm

Atp is the energy that happens during Something. I just did it during biologyhttp://www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/i ... Pmito.html
Has the animation of ATP if you want to find out what it does and how it affects the human body and other bodies.
Proton gradient is built up as a result of NADH (produced from oxidation reactions) feeding electrons into electron transport system.
Protons (indicated by + charge) enter back into the mitochondrial matrix through channels in ATP synthase enzyme complex. This entry is coupled to ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphate (Pi)
The schematic diagram above illustrates a mitochondrion. In the animation, watch as H+ ions accumulate in the outer mitochondrial compartment whenever NADH is made from oxidation reactions, generating a proton gradient (upper image). Protons re-enter the cell through the ATP synthase complex, generating ATP (lower image).
Key points:

Protons are translocated across the membrane, from the matrix to the intermembrane space, as a result of electron transport resulting from the formation of NADH by oxidation reactions. (See the animation of electron transport.) The continued buildup of these protons creates a proton gradient.
ATP synthase is a large protein complex with a proton channel that allows re-entry of protons.
ATP synthesis is driven by the resulting current of protons flowing through the membrane:
ADP + Pi ---> ATP
The schematic diagram above illustrates a mitochondrion. In the animation, watch as NADH transfers H+ ions and electrons into the electron transport system.
Key points:

Protons are translocated across the membrane, from the matrix to the intermembrane space
Electrons are transported along the membrane, through a series of protein carriers
Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor, combining with electrons and H+ ions to produce water
As NADH delivers more H+ and electrons into the ETS, the proton gradient increases, with H+ building up outside the inner mitochondrial membrane, and OH- inside the membrane.
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Post by CoolJay221 » Thu Jan 05, 2006 5:18 pm

adenosine triphosphate (ATP) A common form in which energy is stored in living systems; consists of a nucleotide (with ribose sugar) with three phosphate groups. The energy coin of the cell.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency or coin of the cell, transfers energy from chemical bonds to endergonic (energy absorbing) reactions within the cell. Structurally, ATP consists of the adenine nucleotide (ribose sugar, adenine base, and phosphate group, PO4-2) plus two other phosphate groups.
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Post by CoolJay221 » Thu Jan 05, 2006 5:20 pm

Energy is stored in the covalent bonds between phosphates, with the greatest amount of energy (approximately 7 kcal/mole) in the bond between the second and third phosphate groups. This covalent bond is known as a pyrophosphate bond.

We can write the chemical reaction for the formation of ATP as:

a) in chemicalese: ADP + Pi + energy ----> ATP

b) in English: Adenosine diphosphate + inorganic Phosphate + energy produces Adenosine Triphosphate

The chemical formula for the expenditure/release of ATP energy can be written as:

a) in chemicalese: ATP ----> ADP + energy + Pi

b) in English Adenosine Triphosphate produces Adenosine diphosphate + energy + inorganic Phosphate

An analogy between ATP and rechargeable batteries is appropriate. The batteries are used, giving up their potential energy until it has all been converted into kinetic energy and heat/unusable energy. Recharged batteries (into which energy has been put) can be used only after the input of additional energy. Thus, ATP is the higher energy form (the recharged battery) while ADP is the lower energy form (the used battery). When the terminal (third) phosphate is cut loose, ATP becomes ADP (Adenosine diphosphate; di= two), and the stored energy is released for some biological process to utilize. The input of additional energy (plus a phosphate group) "recharges" ADP into ATP (as in my analogy the spent batteries are recharged by the input of additional energy).

How to Make ATP
Two processes convert ADP into ATP: 1) substrate-level phosphorylation; and 2) chemiosmosis. Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs in the cytoplasm when an enzyme attaches a third phosphate to the ADP (both ADP and the phosphates are the substrates on which the enzyme acts).Enzymes and the formation of NADH and ATP.Chemiosmosis involves more than the single enzyme of substrate-level phosphorylation. Enzymes in chemiosmotic synthesis are arranged in an electron transport chain that is embedded in a membrane. In eukaryotes this membrane is in either the chloroplast or mitochondrion. According to the chemiosmosis hypothesis proposed by Peter Mitchell in 1961, a special ATP-synthesizing enzyme is also located in the membranes. Mitchell would later win the Nobel Prize for his work. generalized view of an electron transport system. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (http://www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (http://www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Usually the terminal phosphate is not simply removed, but instead is attached to another molecule. This process is known as phosphorylation.

W + ATP -----> W~P + ADP where W is any compound, for example:

glucose + ATP -----> glucose~P + ADP

Glucose can be converted into Glucose-6-phosphate by the addition of the phosphate group from ATP.

ATP serves as the biological energy company, releasing energy for both anabolic and catabolic processes and being recharged by energy generated from other catabolic reactions.
Learning Objectives
These learning objectives are taken from my Biology for Nonmajors class (BIO 102). I have tried to add a link to each that will direct you to a part of this chapter or another website that will facilitate your completion of the objective.

Describe the components, organization, and functions of an electron transport system.
ATP is composed of ribose, a five-carbon sugar, three phosphate groups, and adenine , a nitrogen-containing compound (also known as a nitrogenous base). What class of organic macromolecules is composed of monomers similar to ATP?
ATP directly or indirectly delivers energy to almost all metabolic pathways. Explain the functioning of the ATP/ADP cycle.
Adding a phosphate to a molecule is called phosphorylation. What two methods do cells use to phosphorylate ADP into ATP?
Links | Back to Top
Energy View an online slideshow (102 slides) by Susan Blanchard that covers thermodynamics, ATP and all that stuff.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997 Three scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1997 for their work studying enzymes involved with the formation and use of ATP. The press release is of particular note.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978 Press Release Peter D. Mitchell proposed a wild idea about how ATP was made...and he was subsequently validated by other researchers. Read the Nobel Foundation Press release announcing the prize.
Small Molecules for Modern Biology This site requires the Chime Plugin (available from that site) for your browser. You can view images of a variety of small molecules, including ATP.
Mitochondrial Mysteries Demystified This site uses the Shockwave Plugin to provide a multimedia tour of the mitochondrion and its role in cellular metabolism.
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Post by CoolJay221 » Fri Jan 06, 2006 4:11 pm

is that enough for you???
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Post by animejunkie13 » Wed Jan 11, 2006 5:43 am

WOW!
thank you soooo much!
this is going to help me tremendously, thanks again!
:wink: :D :mrgreen: :oops: :shock:

you really didnt need to type ALL of that..... :oops:
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