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This is a very broad question, do you mean the harmful effects of harmful algae blooms, specific algae species e.g. pseudo-nitzschia produces a secondary metabolite called domoic acid which is a neurotoxin and bio accumulates in marine life causing respiratory problems and can lead to amnesiac shellfish poisoning. Also do you mean in refernce to macro algae? Are you interested in the economic effects ? etc..
Algal bloom is the main harmful effect of algae. This generally happens when there is too much algae in the water, in which results in excess of nutrients. This may be because of fertiliser or cleaning products from a nearby residence. The increase of population of algae will also increase the death of them, because they have a short lifespan. And as they die, they take up oxygen in the water, which can disturb or even kill other aquatic animals or plants sharing the same habitat.
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